Covid-19 et loi d’urgence sanitaire : impacts sur la durée du travail, les congés payés et jours de repos

L’Ordonnance n°2020-323 du 25 mars 2020 fixe des dispositions spécifiques en matière de congés payés, de durée du travail et de jour de repos dans le cadre de la loi d’urgence sanitaire du 23 mars 2020 contre la pandémie de Covid-19.

1- Impact de la loi d’urgence Covid-19 en matière de congés payés

L’ordonnance 2020-323 (lutte contre le Covid-19) permet à l’employeur dans le cadre d’un accord de branche ou d’entreprise d’imposer la prise de congés payés ou de modifier les dates d’un congé déjà posé dans la limite de 6 jours ouvrables (soit une semaine de congé payés) en respectant un délai de préavis d’au moins 1 jour franc, y compris pour les congés payés en cours d’acquisition (année N).

Il s’agit d’une disposition dérogatoire aux dispositions du Code du travail qui prévoient que l’employeur peut fixer les dates de congé en respectant un délai de prévenance d’un mois.

L’accord de branche ou l’accord d’entreprise permet également à l’employeur de fractionner le congé principal (4 premières semaines) sans l’accord du salarié

Il permet également de déroger au droit des conjoints travaillant dans la même entreprise de bénéficier de congés simultanés lorsque la présence d’un seul des conjoints est indispensable ou lorsque l’un des conjoints à épuiser ses droits.

En pratique :

  • Dans les entreprises de moins de 11 salariés, le projet d’accord de l’employeur doit être ratifié par les 2/3 du personnel avec un délai de consultation de 15 jours.

    Dans les très petites entreprises, cette procédure revient donc à obtenir l’accord individuel des salariés.
  • Il en est de même pour les entreprises de 11 à 20 salariés non dotées de CSE.
  • Dans les entreprises dotées d’un CSE, signature de l’accord avec les membres titulaires du CSE représentant la majorité des suffrages exprimés lors des dernières élections professionnelles ou négociation avec des salariés non élus mandatés par une ou plusieurs organisations syndicales représentatives et ratification par la majorité des salariés.

2- En matière de jours de repos

Jours de RTT (entreprises ayant conclu des accords de réduction et d’aménagement du temps de travail)

Lorsque l’intérêt de l’entreprise le justifie eu égard aux difficultés économiques liées au covid 19, l’employeur peut de manière unilatérale modifier les dates des JRTT acquis par les salariés sous réserve d’un préavis d’un jour franc.

Conventions de forfait annuel en jours ou en heures (salariés ayant conclu expressément des conventions de forfait)

Lorsque l’intérêt de l’entreprise le justifie eu égard aux difficultés économiques liées au covid 19, l’employeur peut de manière unilatérale modifier sous réserve d’un délai de préavis d’un jour franc les journées ou demi- journées de repos acquises par les salariés en conventions de forfait annuel en jours ou en heures.

En matière de compte épargne temps :

Lorsque l’intérêt de l’entreprise le justifie eu égard aux difficultés économiques liées au covid 19, l’employeur peut à certaines conditions imposer la prise de jours de repos déposés sur le compte épargne temps.

Le nombre de jours total de repos qui peuvent être imposés par l’employeur au titre des JRTT, des jours de repos des conventions de forfait et du compte épargne temps ne peut excéder 10 jours.

3- En matière de durée du travail

Les entreprises dont l’activité est jugée essentielle à la continuité de la vie économique et à la sûreté de la Nation peuvent déroger :

  • A la durée maximale de travail quotidienne (12h00 au lieu de 10h00)
  • A la durée maximale quotidienne de travail de nuit (12h00 au lieu de 8h00)
  • A la durée du repos quotidien (9h00 consécutives au lieu de 11h00 avec repos compensateur équivalent au repos non pris)
  • A la durée maximale hebdomadaire absolue ou moyenne (60h00 au lieu de 48h00 sur une semaine isolée et 48h00 sur une période quelconque de 12 semaines consécutives au lieu de 44h00)
  • A la durée maximale hebdomadaire de travail de nuit (44h00 sur une période de 12 semaines consécutives au lieu de 40h00)

Des dérogations au repos dominical seront également possibles dans les entreprises essentielles à la vie économique et à la sureté de la Nation ainsi qu’à celles qui assure à celles-ci des prestations nécessaires à leur activité principale.

La liste des secteurs sera fixée par décret.

Les secteurs visés par ces dérogations devraient concerner l’énergie, les transports, l’agriculture, l’industrie agroalimentaire notamment.

Le CSE et la DIRECCTE devront être informés sans délai en cas d’utilisation de ces dérogations.

 Ces dérogations cesseront au 31 décembre 2020.

Consultez les autres mesures publiées au JO du 26 mars 2020

Image par Malachi Witt de Pixabay

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